As a freelancing draughtsperson, I have received widespread experience for my contributions in both mechanical and electrical draughting while being involved in product development, presentation, and design reviews. My work involved a combination of technical expertise and creativity. I also brings together technologies from different environments and works inventively. In so doing, I am able to translate ideas into working products that meet the needs. I also endeavour to help engineering designers in improving their productivity. My primary function was to identify the specific needs of professionals designers within the construction industry and then to meet these requirements in a professional, time sensitive and cost-effective manner. I also offer services as complex as Concept Design, Project Planning and Compiling Design Applications or Presentations. I work with a team of skilled and experienced draughtsman from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing reliable and professional service that is on time every time. We use the latest Synchronous 3D modelling software and also use laser as well as infrared reflector-less surveying equipment onsite when producing layout drawings, assembly or detail drawings and mechanical surveying depending on the clients requirements.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

Designer Freebies | Entrepreneur

free weekly ebooks for designers

I've done some research and found these brilliant free ebooks for you to read – but let me know in the comments if you've come across a good book which I've missed! There has always been a healthy market for commercial books written by experts, and this isn't likely to change any time soon: sometimes there's just no substitute for splashing your cash and getting high quality content in return. That said, there's a growing movement towards free and freemium content on the web, and the quality of the content is often on a par with the books you'd part cash for. So, with all that in mind, what content can you get for free in the field of graphic and web design? This selection of ebooks cover a broader design remit that you're after and a quick search on your favourite search engine will reveal hundreds of offerings, making it difficult to sift the wheat from the chaff. But I've saved you the trouble, so here are my picks for the week...

01. Everything There is to Know About Logo Design

 Whether you're new to logo design or just want to swat up on some tips and tricks, the 'Everything There is to Know About Logo Design' e-book is a great little guide to get you going. In this 25-page guide, you’ll learn the basics of what a logo is, rules for creating a logo and other things to consider like colours and typography.

02. Design's Iron Fist

 Jarrod Drysdale is a designer writer who focuses his articles on getting the best out of your work. This is a sort of continuation of sis previous book 'Bootstrapping Design', in which he collects all of his previous essays into one, free e-book. Topics such as 'Think like a designer' and 'Get out of a creative rut' are just some of the titles on offer.

03. Pixel Perfect Precision Handbook

 The Pixel Perfect Precision (PPP) Handbook from leading digital design agency ustwo has come a long way since it was first released four years ago. What started as 108-page simple guide to best practise with pixels and Photoshop, has grown into PPP3 - a whopping 214-page designer bible.

04. The Creative Aid Handbook

Created by Kooroo Kooroo, The Creative Aid is a free book jam packed full of inspiration and available to download today. Co-founders Nicole Smith and Richard Tapp explain the concept: "It's a mini resource for your creative projects and food for your creative thoughts. We’ve included our own valuable references and resources we know and trust as a means to help you get your projects done. We want to give you the creative push from a direction you may not have thought of, be it informative, inspirational, or simply entertaining."

05. The Vignelli Canon

 Iconic designer Massimo Vignelli, who sadly died in May after a long illness, didn't just like to create good design: he was also passionate about sharing its principles, rules and criteria so others could do the same. His landmark book The Vignelli Canon uses numerous examples to convey applications in practice from product design via signaletics and graphic design to corporate design. And best of all, in 2009 he made it available for free as a PDF.

06. One Thing I Know

 'One Thing I Know' compiles hard-earned insights from creative entrepreneurs from across the UK. The series of articles is aimed at passing their experience down to the next generation. This is first-hand advice from those who have experienced it - and overcome it - themselves.


07. Type Classification eBook

 This excellent 27-page ebook details the 10 key classifications for typography, providing the basic understanding you'll need to gain a grasp of the fundamentals of type selection. The book covers a brief history for each of the classifications, as well as the core characteristics of the style.  

08. How to be Creative

 More of a manifesto than a traditional book, 'How to be Creative' offers a useful set of headline approaches to maximising your creativity, with the author Hugh MacLeod offering some insight into his own personal experience of why each is a useful and/or important technique or lesson to spur you on.

09. Graphic Design for Non-profit Organizations

The book focuses mainly on design and best prac­tices for non-profit orga­ni­za­tions, but the con­tent is a great resource in gen­eral and the teach­ings can be applied pretty much any­where.

10. Time Management for Creative People

You may be insanely creative, but that doesn't translate into success if you're not getting things done effectively. Luckily business coach and trainer Mark McGuinness has distilled his knowledge of what it takes to get original work done in the midst of the demands and distractions of the 21st century workplace into a free 32-page ebook. It's full of practical advice aimed to help you achieve your artistic and professional goals, with subjects including finding the method in your creative madness, identifying and prioritising your most important work, and getting in the right state of mind for focused work.


Wednesday, November 25, 2015

A Brief About Design | Projects

There are a number of basic components that any good design brief includes. Getting your clients to include each of these in their brief makes your job as a designer that much easier. A comprehensive, detailed brief becomes the guiding document for the entire design process, and spells out exactly what you, as the designer, need to do, and the constraints within which you need to do it. In this article we’ll examine the basics needed for a great design brief which should help ease your design work and avoid any problems with your clients.

The first thing you need to find out is what your client wants from their new design. Is this a redesign or reworking of an existing design, or is it a completely new design? Do they already have solid ideas for what they want their product to do or are their ideas more vague? Getting your clients to nail down what their product goals are is important in creating a design that they’ll be satisfied with. After all as a designer, you’ll approach a design that’s meant to raise awareness differently from one that’s meant to specifically sell a product or service.
Budget can be a touchy subject for some clients. A lot of clients feel like if they share their budget with you before you give them a quote, you’ll overcharge them or charge them the maximum amount for the least amount of work. What clients don’t often understand is that by knowing ahead of time what kind of budget they have to work with, you can tailor your services to give them the most benefit for their money. This is the part you need to stress to your clients, and be prepared to meet some resistance.

Schedule is almost as important as budget. Some clients have no idea how long it takes to design a great website. They don’t understand that good design takes time, and that it’s not just a matter of creating a pretty picture. Sometimes clients have certain deadlines that they want to meet, because of events happening with their company or industry. They might have an upcoming product launch or trade show and want their new site ready for it. It’s important to find out why they want things to fit within a certain schedule and whether that schedule is flexible or not.

Be realistic with your clients about both their budget and schedule needs. If you know you can’t do something within a certain budget or schedule, tell them up front. Offer alternative solutions, if possible. You may find that by working with them and within the restrictions they have, you form a better working relationship and plenty of repeat and referral business.

Who are your clients trying to reach? A website designed for teenagers is going to look and work a bit differently than one designed for corporate decision-makers. Ask your client who they want to appeal to with their website right from the beginning. If your clients aren’t sure who they want to reach with their products, ask them who their ideal customer is. I’m sure they have an idea of who buys their products or uses their services. Ask them to describe those people, even if there’s more than one. If so, it’s your job as the designer to create something that appeals to more than one demographic.

Not every project is as in-depth as every other. Some clients want a completely custom solution. Others just want you to adapt an existing template or other design. Some clients want an entire over-the-top, while others just want a simple design. Sometimes, project scope is obvious from the goals of a project; But if it’s not obvious, you’ll need to ask. Make sure you ask about things that could be added to the design. i.e Does your client already have a logo, brochure, product prototype, or other materials that would be useful to your design? Looking at their existing promotional materials can shed valuable insight into what their design taste is and what their priorities are. If your client doesn’t have things like a logo or product prototype, then you’ll likely want to either offer to design these things, or refer your client to someone who can (if that’s not in your normal scope of services). These kinds of add-ons can be valuable to both your client and to your bottom line.

Getting a sense of what your client wants in terms of style is vital. They may have a grunge design in mind when you’re picturing something clean and modern (or vice versa). Most clients have very distinct likes and dislikes. But they’re not always good at expressing what their tastes are. Asking clients for examples of designs they like and designs they don’t like, even if they’re the designs of their competitors, can give you valuable insight into what they like and don’t like. Your clients should provide you with a handful of examples prior to starting the design phase.

At least as telling as what a client likes and wants is what they definitely do not want. Some clients hate certain features. Getting an idea of what your client doesn’t want can save you from wasting time designing features your clients will then reject. Now that you have an idea of what your client’s design brief should include, it’s time to decide whether you should gather this information through a formal questionnaire, or simply provide your clients with a guiding document that tells them how to put together a brief. There are advantages to either approach. A formal questionnaire can be useful for clients who are new to working with professional designers. A well-designed questionnaire gets your client thinking, and gets to the root of what they want from their new look.

Then again, a less formal document that simply guides your client to create a design brief that includes all the pertinent information. If most of your clients have already worked with professional designers, this can be a better way to get information. Letting your client say what they want to say can lead them to revealing information they might not reveal in a formal questionnaire. Another option is to interview your clients in a less formal way. Discuss the things generally included in a good design brief, and take notes (or record the conversation if your client is okay with that, and then transcribe it later). The advantage to doing an interview is that you can ask for more information or clarification if necessary, and you can generally gauge how enthusiastic your client is about certain aspects of the project or certain ideas.

The design brief serves as the guiding document for the project. Think of it as like a business plan for a specific project. It should cover everything necessary to the project, in a manner that is easy to refer to throughout the project timeline. Make notes on your design briefs once you start the project. Keep your proposal along with it, as well as other important documents. Highlight the important parts of each, or make notes in the margins. Don’t just look it over at the beginning and then file it away somewhere. Effectively using a design brief throughout the process can result in a much better end result.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Investment in Artworks

As an entrepreneurial multimedia author who is always in pursuit of investment opportunities within the creative sector, the fine arts being no exception. I too was hot on the heels of the R9,6 million sale of Amadlozi Group artworks in Johannesburg by a leading South African auction house Stephan Welz & Co. which offered a number of important works from artists in a groundbreaking group from the 1960s, including a rare and exceptional 11-panel work from Cecil Skotnes, which was commissioned in the late 1960s for a government building. The Progression was valued at R1,3 – 1,7 million, and is one of the works to be auctioned in the Fine Art and Collectables Auction in Johannesburg.

During my studies of the history of South African arts, I often read about Egon Guenther, a renowned Johannesburg gallerist who formed the short-lived Amadlozi Group in 1961, along with fellow artist Cecil Skotnes, who gave the name. Other members included Guiseppe Cattaneo, Cecily Sash, Sydney Kumalo and Edoardo Villa. Amadlozi means “spirit of our ancestors”, and artworks produced by the group reflected an African influence. “The group also facilitated the emergence of talented black artists during the restrictive apartheid years,” according to Imre Lamprecht, Head of the Art Department at Stephan Welz & Co, “allowing artists like Sydney Kumalo and Lucas Sithole to come to the forefront and achieve international acclaim.”

Completed in 1971, Skotnes’s The Progression was saved from a government auction and preserved by its current owner, according to Lamprecht, who adds that “the phrase ‘historically significant’ does not begin to describe the work. The panels are representative of the visual language which Skotnes developed, reflective of his fascination with archaeology, ancient cultures and the concept of hidden, elusive or dormant histories.” “Amadlozi artists, many of whom were sculptors primarily, have had great success on the market over the last few years,” adds Lamprecht. “They are well-respected and well-collected, and are always in big demand.”

 Artists like Cecily Sash and Lucas Sithole, which are both represented in the sale. Sithole, who died in 1994, is best known for his sculptures in indigenous wood. The two sculptures to be auctioned are Changing His Mind (Lena Nangale) was valued at R250 000 – R350 000 and What Are You Hiding , which had an estimated value of R150 000 – R200 000. Born in 1924, Cecily Sash is equally considered an artist and an art teacher. Her long and distinguished career is firmly rooted in South Africa, although she chose exile in England in 1974 less for political and social reasons than for personal and artistic ones. Sash’s two works to be auctioned are Cartograph I, which was valued at R30 000 – R40 000, and Bird with Ribbons, which features her characteristic anthropomorphic birds and was valued at R25 000 – R35 000.

Sense of Place: Conveying two very different South African landscapes – The Rustenberg Kloof and the Bo Kaap – with equal passion are the 20th century masterpieces by Jacob Pierneef and Freida Lock to be auctioned. The lush flora in Rustenberg , painted in a mature style by Pierneef, was executed in pastel colours that strongly hint that the work was painted during autumn 1942. The painting was valued at R600 000 – R800 000. Freida Lock, whose artistic career was a tumultuous one, painted The Mosque, Bo-Kaap , a scene not far from her house on Cape Town’s Bree Street. It had an estimated value of R500 000 – R800 000.

Twenty-First Century Talent: Mexican born Georgina Gratrix has lived and worked in Cape Town for many years, and is one of the most exciting and innovative young artists currently on the South African contemporary art scene. Part mocking, part criticism, part play, Gratrix’s work offers an inverted visual take on the world, as is evident in her painting My Friend , which was valued at R30 000 – R50 000. Another hot contemporary artist is Matthew Hindley, whose 2012 work Dirt and Agency, was recently exhibited in Hungary. In this painting, which was valued at R50 000 – R90 000, the confronting issues of love, sexuality and death are explored in a dark and mesmerising way.

It’s a stark contrast to Conrad Botes’ Tree of Knowledge, a colourful quadryptich based on a religious theme from an artist often described as the torchbearer of the Post-Pop movement in South Africa. Botes’ work had an estimated value of R100 000 – R 160 000......

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Racing Engineering | Technology

Ever since cables first connected accelerator pedal to carburetors, drivers have been searching for better throttle response - the connection between input at the pedal and power delivered to the wheels. Electronically controlled throttle offers an interesting solution and may even change what we consider the throttle’s job to be. There are two important maps for the driver: the Driver Pedal Map and the Driver Torque Demand Map.

The Pedal Map and the Torque Demand Map are two maps that allow the driver to manage the engine
drivability through the redefinition of torque delivery at wheel and in turn, to improve the laptime performance. When we are talking about response or feel, we are generally referring to how hard the car is
accelerating in relation to throttle position. If we open the throttle more, we want to accelerate more; less throttle, less acceleration. If the car had a perfectly flat torque curve at every rpm and every throttle opening, the relationship between throttle opening and acceleration would be nicely linear. But that is not the case. As you accelerate out of a corner, the amount of torque the engine generates at a given throttle opening changes as rpm scales through the torque curve’s peaks and valleys. In many cases the relationship is anything but linear, and it’s possible to even end up closing the throttle slightly on a corner exit while the engine climbs out of a dip in the powerband in order to keep torque constant. With throttle butterflies controlled by electronics becoming more common, it’s possible to change things so that torque output - what we feel - is more directly related to throttle position. As you exit a corner and open the throttle, torque goes up proportionately. Close the throttle, and torque goes down proportionately. There is an additional benefit in this scenario: not only will response be improved, but also the engine can be tuned more for peak power rather than a smooth power curve - the electronics will hide any resulting peaks and valleys. In short, the driver torque map represents the torque requested by the driver as a function of engine speed and accelerator pedal position.

There are few required maps in engine mapping:

1. The engine torque map engine torque map is a theoretical model of the engine. It represents the torque delivered by the engine as a function of engine speed and engine throttle position. In the ECU the engine torque map is used to position the engine throttles to match the drivers’ torque demand. This is a 2-dimension table with engine speed and throttle as inputs and torque as output. This map is defined point-by-point or by ramps at the test rig with the fired engine and the torque meter.

2. The inverse engine torque map . It is calculated by the engine torque map. It is a 2-dimensions table with torque and engine speed as inputs and throttle as output. It is computer calculated.
3. The driver demand torque map . The driver torque map represents the torque requested by the driver as a function of engine speed and accelerator pedal position. This is also 2-dimension table with engine speed and driver normalized torque as input and engine torque as output. This is a reshaping of the engine torque. This is the core of the drivability because allow the engineers to completely reshape the engine torque in function of the engine speed, within the boundaries of maximum and minimum torque available (which is the torque at off-throttle – engine brake - and at wide-open- throttle).
4. The pedal map . This is a 1-dimension map where the input is the normalized accelerator pedal position (0-100%) and the output is the normalized torque (0-100%). It can be considered as a “gain” on the driver demand torque map.

5. Ignition map . The key thing when tuning an engine in terms of controlling fuel detonation. Determine proper way of fuelling, air-fuel Ratio (AFR), exhaust gas temperature and ignition position.

So, with the generic term “Engine Maps” we refer to a wide set of one-dimension or two-dimension parameter tables loaded into the ECU to control all the engine parameters, that are, at least, throttle opening, injection and ignition timings (duration, phase, etc...). All maps are filled with proper data during hours of engine calibration done at the test rig and/or at track. The torque demand, as requested from the driver by the acceleration pedal, is calculated by the chain composed by the Pedal Map and the Torque Demand Map. The input variable is the accelerator pedal position, given by the drive by wire potentiometer and the output variable will be the throttle position, actuated from the ECU by hydraulic or electric actuators on the engine intake butterflies or barrels.

Electronic throttle control can be accomplished in one of two ways. The first is by using an open-loop, map-style programming of the ECU, much as a manufacturer’s base fuel mapping is modified using a Power Commander or other fuel injection tool. Knowing the torque produced by the engine at any given combination of rpm and throttle position, an electronic butterfly’s programming can be modified to react accordingly, based on what the driver is asking for. The second is to use a closed-loop system, with a torque sensor providing feedback to the ECU. Engine mapping affects ignition timing, fuel mixture, power and torque delivery.

The Pedal Map and the Torque Demand Map are two single most important maps that allow the driver to manage the engine drivability through the redefinition of torque delivery at wheel and in turn, to improve the laptime performance.

The engineers provide a selection of usable pedal maps and torque maps and driver can change and select desired map by using rotary selectors on the steering wheel. In this way, the driver could have the optimal pedal map in function of the corner (different between low speed corners or high speed corners) or have negative slope torque map for low gears and standard map for high gears - all selected automatically. The selector for the pedal map is often labeled as "PEDAL" and the torque map selector is often labeled a "TRQ". Sometimes the two functions can be overlaid on single rotary selector, to save one rotary selector for other uses. It is recommended to always have a WET configuration on the selectors, which can be used when grip is low. Except for some specific exceptions, the engine torque must be controlled by the driver by means of a single accelerator pedal. These exceptions include: downshifts, pit lane speed limiter, anti-stall function and the end of straight limiter strategy. Note that this list is not exhaustive.

Engine torque mappings 
This 2-dimension table map is defined point-by-point or by ramps at the test rig with the fired engine and the torque meter. Sometimes is trimmed on track if the car is equipped with torque meters on the transmission.

Renault Sport provided me with detailed technical explanation on engine torque mappings. Torque maps were a hot topic in July and August 2012 when the FIA issue a directive and made some changes to the way teams were using them during the mid-season. But they are the single most important map for the engineers to use for reference when trying to make sure that the engine is optimized for a given circuit.

A directive from the FIA around the time of the German and Hungarian Grands Prix closed a loophole exploited by Red Bull Racing and its engine partner Renault, to improve gas pressure from the exhaust by lowering the torque curve. As a result the Formula 1 teams are no longer allowed to change the torque maps from weekend to weekend, so the maps used after 2012 Korea GP are the ultimate expression of what an F1 engine can do.

Renault Sport F1 engine engineer David Lamb:
“In it's simplest form, the engine torque map is a theoretical model of the engine. It represents the torque output of the engine for a given engine throttle position and engine speed. In this respect it appears outwardly similar to a driver torque pedal map, the only change being the look-up against engine throttle position instead of the driver’s pedal. However, in reality, the differences are far more complex and wide reaching. From this map, you know for any given speed or throttle position that you should produce a certain amount of engine torque,”

“We then use that reference map to ensure the engine is behaving as it should out on the circuit. We measure the actual engine torque with an on-board sensor, and when you overlay this with the value predicted by the torque map, you shouldn’t notice any large differences. If you have a hesitation or a drivability issue, you will see it clearly because the measured torque will not match the reference torque.”

“The torque map doesn’t change much over the course of a weekend, or between races. Under the new technical directive, issued between the German and Hungarian Grand Prix, you can’t really change the maps that much over a weekend or between races. It’s like a fingerprint of the engine. There will be subtle differences between the teams due their respective air boxes and exhausts, which will slightly change the form of the map. Prior to this directive, we would change the torque map freely to suit the climatic conditions. For example, the engines will produce nearly 10% less torque at Sao Paulo than they will this weekend in Korea due to Sao Paulo’s high altitude. By changing the torque map to the prevailing conditions the engine response will feel the same to the driver across the season. Nowadays we have to request this torque map change from the FIA, and fully justify our reasoning.”

“As well as ensuring the engine behaves as it should, the map is also used to improve the drivability of the car for the driver. When the driver lifts off the pedal the engine can be either fired in four cylinders or fully cut, depending on the level of overrun support he requires. When the driver goes back on the pedal from full ignition cut, you need to inject more fuel than usual to ‘wet’ the engine. Inject too little or too much and you will have a torque deficit from target, which can cause a hesitation and a loss of lap time. The initial torque demand will generally be met with only four cylinders, as you’d rather save a bit of fuel and have four cylinders firing strongly using a more open throttle than have eight coming into life rather weakly with a relatively closed throttle."

“When the torque demand exceeds that which can be met with just four cylinders, the remaining cylinders need to be fired. These will also require ‘wetting’. At this point you also have to close the throttles at a rate which coincides with the final four coming back into life – this is the tricky bit! Get it right and the driver should feel nothing across the transition, just a change in engine pitch. In all cases, the torque map is used in conjunction with other settings to govern both the fuelling requirements and throttle position.”
The engine torque map is used for a multitude of other processes, such as the pit limiter, rev limiter and
downshift control.

“The engine torque map is without doubt one of the most important calibrations in the SECU. It really is the reference point. When the driver lifts of the pedal, it’s the engine torque map that decides by how much we close the throttles. When he goes back on power, it’s the engine torque map that stipulates to what point they open. It all works off that map.”

Pedal mappings
Gas pedal is no longer a simple way of directly moving the throttles on the engine, because the ECU replaced traditional Bowden cable between the pedal and throttle with pedal position sensor and a map. Such maps are now restricted to tire type, so just three maps are allowed: for wet weather, intermediate and dry tires. Previously, different maps could be selected for the race start and other race situations. The regulations also enforce other restrictions on the pedal, for example no detents or other means can be used to aid the driver in holding a specific position, such as holding revs steady at the race start.

5.5 Power unit torque control :

5.5.4 The accelerator pedal shaping map in the ECU may only be linked to the type of the tyres fitted
to the car : one map for use with dry-weather tyres and one map for use with intermediate or wet-weather tyres.

5.5.7 Homologated sensors must be fitted which measure the torque generated at the power unit output shaft and the torques supplied to each driveshaft. These signals must be provided to the FIA data logger.

Detecting the pedal travel has evolved since drive-by-wire was introduced. Initially, linear or rotary sensors between the chassis and pedal were used and, owing to the critical nature of the sensor, these were doubled or even tripled up for redundancy. In recent years, for simpler packaging the linear sensors have been replaced with non-contact sensors, such as Hall effect or induction types, the sensors being built into the pivoting plate and the target magnet being embedded into the base of the pedal.

Changing the pedal map is an easy way to change the sensitivity of the pedal while conserving the characteristic shape of the driver demand torque map. They are one of the main factors which allow matching an engine's feel to a driver's requirements. Role of pedal maps is to ensure the driver always has the power he requires, they can also be used to give the driver a bit of help.

Renault Sport F1 engine engineer David Lamb explains:
“There are essentially two types of pedal map. There’s a conventional one dimensional pedal map, which is basically a representation of a driver’s throttle against the pedal input that is passed across to the engine controller. You can use this to quickly change the feel of the engine to the driver, but it is slightly obsolete now; you might have found it in the sport ten years ago. Some road cars now feature a ‘sporty’ pedal map of exactly this style, with the initial engine response feeling more aggressive to give the impression of it being racier.

The challenges in Formula 1 in terms of throttle mapping are very different from what those car makers face. Since traction control is banned in Formula 1 it’s up to the driver to modulate the throttle. Getting the right amount of engine output to accelerate the car out of the corners without excessive wheel spin (too high slip ratios) is critical for ensuring good lap times while limiting tire wear. To help the drivers, the engineers try to adjust the throttle map to each driver and corner to make it easier for the driver to maximize traction.

“Now when we talk about pedal maps we talk about the torque pedal map, which is a two dimensional map against engine speed and throttle pedal position. For a given pedal position and a given engine speed, you generate an engine torque demand from the driver. It is this demand that gets fed to the engine side of the ECU to deliver the required amount of torque.”

“With driver torque pedal maps, you can have different philosophies. You can have a constant torque map, where regardless of the engine speed you receive the same torque demand for a given throttle pedal position. However, this offers no wheel spin assistance, which can be incorporated with a constant power style pedal map.

“For example, say you’re at 50% pedal on the throttle and at 15,000 RPM, you might get around 200Nm of torque. If you get a bit of wheelspin and the engine speed increases to 16,000 RPM, the torque at the wheels will be reduced as this is a constant power pedal map – power being the product of torque and engine speed. It’s not traction control as it isn’t controlling to a wheel slip target, but instead an open-loop method to try and help wheelspin control. It can be of real benefit when the tires are worn out.”
“You can have an area of constant torque on a pedal map followed by a region of ‘constant power’ decay afterwards. Your torque pedal map could therefore be a mix of this and a constant torque map, depending on the preference of your driver and your car.”

But it isn’t just in the use of the pedal that mapping is important. It is also when the driver is off-throttle that is of almost equal importance.

“The zero percent line is when the driver is completely off the pedal. It is this line that sets the amount of over-run push. This is when the engine continues to turn and produce torque, albeit still slightly negative, under braking. Getting this correct is essential as we use it to reduce rear locking under engine braking . It’s another open-loop system, this time pseudo anti-lock, so as the tires wear out the driver will tend to increase the amount of push during the course of a stint.

“The downsides are that the heat rejection to water and oil will go up, so fluid temperatures will increase, and you’ll also use more fuel to achieve this. It’s quite a pronounced effect: if you plan to use maximum push for the whole race you could end up adding another two kilos to the starting race fuel load.”

There are, of course, limitations that have been placed upon pedal maps so that a version of traction control doesn’t edge its way back into the sport and the FIA is quite strict on how teams use pedal maps, especially on launch procedure. But during the Fridays teams are working incredibly hard to make sure that they hone pedal maps for each corner and for each driver to make sure that they are happy with throttle application and power output.

Ignition map
Ignition mapping is the key thing when tuning an engine in terms of controlling fuel firing and detonation. Determine proper way of fuelling, air-fuel Ratio (AFR), exhaust gas temperature and ignition position. The two things that will kill your engine quicker than anything else are detonation and excessive exhaust gas temperature.

To get your car to first fire up, you need something loaded onto the ECU initially from which you can begin mapping. This is referred to as a base or baseline map. Engine engineer will provide a base map for the first dyno test. The key thing about a base map is that it must be safe. Normally the fuelling will be richer than you need and typically the ignition will be more retarded than you need. Some calls a base map a footballer map as those tend to be rich and retarded too. The base map is not about trying to get the most power or best fuel economy, it's just about getting the engine to start and to drive the car around so it can be mapped further from that starting point to get the desired end result. Engineer will build up gradually on the base map and map the engine during the dyno test and also later during the track test. Normally developed ignition map will look nothing like base map.

Use of engine torque map, driver torque map and pedal mappings are covered by Articles 5.5 of the technical regulations.

5.5 Power unit torque control:

5.5.1 The only means by which the driver may control acceleration torque to the driven wheels is via a single chassis mounted foot (accelerator) pedal.

5.5.2 Designs which allow specific points along the accelerator pedal travel range to be identified by the driver or assist him to hold a position are not permitted.
5.5.3 The minimum and maximum accelerator pedal travel positions must correspond to the minimum and maximum available torque with the currently selected power unit torque map. 

- Except for some specific exceptions, the engine torque must be controlled by the driver. These exceptions include: downshifts, pit lane speed limiter, anti-stall function and the end of straight limiter strategy. Note that this list is not exhaustive.
- The driver may only control the torque by means of a single accelerator pedal.
- At zero percent pedal (off throttle), the torque demand must be less than or equal to zero; at one hundred percent pedal (full throttle), the torque demand must match or exceed the maximum torque output of the engine in its current state (Article 5.5.3).
- There are limits on the shape of the torque demand as a function of pedal position and engine speed (to prevent engine characteristics that could be driver aids). Respecting these restrictions, the torque demand is shaped against throttle position and engine speed to deliver the desired response for the driver and car.

Monday, November 16, 2015

Attention to Details

How a draughtsperson draws is a reflection of many things – you can frequently tell the priorities of a designer just by looking at the quality of their drawings. I didn’t say the content of their drawings – and this isn’t just semantics – it speaks to the culture of the firm. For the purposes of today’s post, I am going to assume that all design drawings are correct and serve their purpose of conveying intent, scope and quantity. But that’s not really the entire story is it?

Some of the larger commercial designing productions had the resources to buy “CAD Work Stations” and dedicate substantial office space to server rooms complete with NASA-looking tape storage systems, but most businesses like Mampahe Designs are still drawing things by hand. This is where I really learned how to draw but before you old designers say “that’s right!” and you younger designers look at this as old-timers syndrome, I’m not saying that we drew better, I’m just saying it was different. I used 3 or 4 different lead holders with leads of varying degrees of hard/soft to them. I consciously endeavored to add profile lines, hatching, foreground and background indicators in place. You could look at the hand drawn construction drawings and frequently tell who had drawn what sheets and what details. It was art to me …

I thought these drawings were beautiful and I didn’t want other people working on my sheets, adding their sloppy pencil work to the magic I had created. It was a big deal to me years ago and even though we don’t draw by hand any more, it’s still a big deal to me... Working on the graphic standards is always a lengthy process of trial and error. In most cases it not’s just about the output of the drafting software, it’s also about how you draw the things that convey the information. Depending on how this post is received, I might prepare some follow up posts where I’ll focus in on some specific items (symbols, legends, title sheets, etc.)

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Open Plan | Design

Homes with small floor plans such as Cottages and Cabins make great starter homes, empty nester homes, or a second get-away house. Due to the simple fact that these homes are small and therefore require less material makes them affordable home plans to build. When coming to design, I prefer a blend of traditional and contemporary style, today’s transitional design is classic, timeless, and clean. Transitional design focuses on comfort and practicality, balancing pleasing scale with simplicity of detail and sophisticated finishes. In the 1880s, small public rooms of the home with specific functions began to be replaced by larger rooms that would fulfill multiple uses, with the kitchen, bedrooms and bathrooms still being enclosed private spaces. Larger rooms were made possible by advances in centralized heating that allowed larger spaces to be kept at comfortable temperatures. Frank Lloyd Wright was one of the early advocates for open plan design in houses, expanding on the ideas of Charles and Henry Greene and shingle style architecture. Wright's designs were based on a centralized kitchen which opened to other public spaces of the home where the housewife would be "more hostess 'officio', operating in gracious relation to her home, instead of being a kitchen mechanic behind closed doors.

Prior to the 1950s open-plan offices mostly consisted of large regular rows of desks or benches where clerks, typists, or technicians performed repetitive tasks. Such designs were rooted in the work of industrial engineers or efficiency experts such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henry Ford. In the 1950s a German team named Quickborner developed the office landscape, which used conventional furniture, curved screens, large potted plants, and organic geometry to create work groups on large, open floors. Office landscape was quickly supplanted by office-furniture companies which developed cubicles based on panel-hung or systems furniture. Many terms (mostly derisive) have been used over time for offices using the old-style, large arrays of open cubicles.

An increase in knowledge work and the emergence of mobile technology during the late 20th-century led to an evolution in open-plan offices. Many companies have started experimenting with designs which provide a mix of cubicles, open workstations, private offices, and group workstations. In some cases, these are not assigned to one particular individual, but are available to any employee of the company on either a reservable or "drop-in" (first come, first served) basis. Terms for this strategy include Hoteling, "alternative officing" and "hotdesking". Michael Bloomberg used a team-oriented bullpen style – where employees can see and hear each other freely, but desks are grouped into teams – at his media company Bloomberg L.P. and for his staff while Mayor of New York City (in office: 2002–2013).

Hoteling (also hotelling or office hoteling) is a method of office management in which workers dynamically schedule their use of workspaces such as desks, cubicles, and offices. It is an alternative approach to the more traditional method of permanently-assigned seating. Hoteling is reservation-based unassigned seating; employees reserve a workspace before they come to work in an office. An alternate method of handling unassigned seating is hot desking, which does not involve reservations; with hot desking, a worker chooses a workspace upon arrival, rather than reserving it in advance. With hoteling, workers are not assigned their own desks; instead, they reserve a desk for their temporary use for just the days they expect to work in the office. The benefits of hoteling over a more traditional, one-desk-per-employee scenario include saving costs on commercial real estate, as well as creating opportunities for staff to mingle and collaborate more.

A smaller home on the other hand should feel cozy, not cramped. Open floor plans are ideal for smaller homes. Another space-saving strategy is to forgo formal spaces such as the separate dining room in favor of an everyday eating nook that opens easily to the kitchen. Look for multi-use spaces, such as a kitchen island that can be used as a food prep space, breakfast bar, and serving buffet for larger meals. A flexible bonus space upstairs allows for future expansion. In any home (but especially a smaller design), smart placement of porches and decks is a great way to add living space. Lastly, since a small home is usually more affordable because of lesser costs for land, materials, and labor, you may be in a better position to invest in high-quality windows, flooring, and appliances. Whether you're building a primary residence or vacation home, you'll be amazed at how a small home can fit just right.

A systematic survey of research upon the effects of open-plan found frequent negative effects in some traditional workplaces: high levels of noise, stress, conflict, high blood pressure and a high staff turnover. The noise level in open-plan offices greatly reduces productivity, which drops to one third relative to what it would be in quiet rooms. New technologies like voice-activation and mobile phones also decrease effectiveness in the open-plan setting. Open-plan offices have frequently been found to reduce the confidential or private conversations which employees engage in, and to reduce job satisfaction, concentration and performance, whilst increasing auditory and visual distractions.

Neither open- nor closed-plan offices are perfect for all situations or for all individuals. The right balance is required. Any design is likely to involve trade-offs for the occupants, with some positives and negatives. Architect Frank Duffy developed a taxonomy to classify the form of space that would suit different types of occupants. How much interaction individuals require, the design (i.e., the amount of autonomy), together with the technology available, predict the design that may best suit the occupant.

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Our Living Spaces

When coming to time spend in one's living space: I wonder how much time do we spend in our living spaces? Are these spaces actually used for single or multiple purpose? Being in our 30's, 40's or even 50's, Have we changed the way we live from our days of independence? These are important questions because I find that some of us are choosing different spaces based on a singular or multiple functions.

It has became easier for of us to identify what works best because we tend to think about how we really live. My home office, for instance has a cycling exercise equipment, it's own kitchen and a bathroom which have made my living space more convenient to start or end my day when I'm not on-route. By the way, I can now blame my student years.

Do we use our living space for entertaining, do we think about what types of gatherings we usually host. When entertaining, Is it important for you to invite one or two other people for a quiet night in front of the fireplace? Or throw big stand-ups where everyone mixes and mingles? Do we prefer seated events? If so, Do we pick large, cushy upholstery, or do we keep the chairs and couches smaller-scale to leave as much room as possible for moving around?

When coming to those creature comforts, Do we have storage space for less-fancy items such as our kids' toys and our stacks of magazines, or like me do you stash these items in some clever spaces when company comes into your living space. Do you put your computer and printer in the living space or does your living space double as your children's playroom as well? Do you use the space for double duties as a guest room? Lastly what do you do to ensure that you enjoy your living space for years