Background

As a freelancer design draughtsperson, I have received widespread experience for my contributions in both mechanical and electrical engineering draughting being involved in product development, presentation, and design reviews. My work involves a combination of technical expertise and creativity. I also brings together technologies from different environments and works inventively. In so doing I am able to translate ideas into working products that meet the needs. As a blogger, I strive to inspire my readers by bringing you content through this value added service. I endeavour to help designers and other professionals improve their creativity and productivity. My primary function is to identify the specific needs of professionals sector within the desgn industry and then to meet these requirements in a professional, time sensitive and cost-effective manner. I also offer services as complex as Concept Design, Project Planning and Compiling Design Applications or Presentations. My team of skilled and experienced freelance professionals of professionals are dedicated to providing reliable and professional service that is on time every time.In my Design and Drawing office, I use the latest Synchronous 3D modelling software. On site, I use laser and infrared reflector-less surveying equipment. I also provide layout drawing, design, shop detailing and mechanical surveying depending on the clients requirements. This is my design journey.....

Friday, December 16, 2016

Die Engineering

There's a sort of pseudo-language that's developed in the metal stamping industry. For the layperson, that hasn't been enlightened as to how sheet metal parts are made, listening to someone talk about it can be like listening to someone speaking a foreign language. This guide was written to help those that want to know what engineers and technicians are talking about when they are discussing sheet metal stamping and the machines that perform the processes of stamping, forming, trimming, flanging, piercing, and restriking sheet metal.

Die engineering is one of those crafts that takes years to understand fully. At least a crude knowledge of metallurgy, pressure systems, steel machining, and iron casting are all tools that die designers and builders possess. Computer technology has also given the layperson a way to view three dimensional models of stamping presses and dies. These virtual design programs are crucial in allowing others to follow a die through the various phases of its design and build. But, if you have no idea what components you are looking at or what purpose they serve, you'll have trouble following anyone's explanations of the machine, simply because so many of the names and words used in mechanical engineering aren't known to the person who hasn't had prolonged exposure to the metal stamping industry.

The following terms are in order of usefulness; they are ordered to help those unfamiliar with mechanical die types and their application as tools to make stamped metal parts.

Stamping Press: This is the machine that a finished die set attaches to. The bottom of a press, or the base, is stationary. The upper ram travels up and down, and provides the pressure required to form or hold the metal place onto the lower half of the die, which is mounted to the stationary base. The upper die member is mounted to the ram, thus traveling up and down with it.

Press Stroke: The ram of a press proceeds down until the upper die member is closed upon the lower die member. The ram then returns up, opening the die and allowing the finished part to be removed. A new blank is then placed into the die. Each up and down cycle is accomplished to the same specifications dependent on the type of press. The distance the ram travels either up or down is the press stroke.

Larger presses typically have greater press stroke distance. Another important factor of press stroke is strokes per minute. Different presses have different speed variations, and two factors, press stroke distance and press strokes per minute, are considered carefully before die engineers start work on the dies that'll be mounted to the press carriage and ram.

Die Size: These dimensions generally refer to the upper and lower plates the remainer of the die's components are mounted to. These are either die sets made of steel or cast iron shoes. Iron is cheaper than steel so, if a large die is required, more than likely it'll be made of iron. Smaller die sets are made of steel and often sold as complete die sets with guide pins and mounting slots or holes provided. The dimensions of a die include overall (o.a.) die size and die set size. If an upper iron shoe is 50 mm thick and 1200 mm long and 800mm long the dimensions would look like this: 50 x 1200 x 800. Cast dies can easily be designed to any size whereas steel die sets are sold in various sizes, choosing the right one can sometimes prove a challenge.

Castings: When a decision has been made to design a die from iron, the parts of the die are called castings. This does not include standard items like die punches or safety blocks, which are normally made from steel. Iron castings are unfinished metal that can be machined at various locations where a clean surface is required (i.e. a mounting surface).

Designing castings requires the engineer to take in account weight, wall strength, core size, and cost. Once a casting design is approved, it's pulled, or separated, from the overall design and given its own computer file. This file is sent to a foundry where iron is poured to the exact specifications given to them by the design source. When the iron cools, a rough cast of the three dimensional design is ready for further work by machinists.

Die Detail: These are normally castings pulled from the overall design, as described above. But, they can include steel components. Whenever a drawing or 3D model will help builders better see, or comprehend, a design, a build company might ask for separate layers or files that will allow them to look at any major die component separately. An upper die pad, for example, would be cast and machined from material (files, blueprints) that showed it not only as it set in the die, but separately, too.

Milling and Machining: The act of finishing a surface is called machining. It's often accomplished with a spinning metal cutter, called a mill. Mills can be used to cut pockets into iron or steel, create finished surfaces to tight specifications, and follow paths programmed into its computer that allow them to machine large surfaces for hours without stopping.

In the figure above note the rounded corners of the pocket being machined. Unless there is a run-out - a way for the path of the cutter to be unobstructed as it is removed or moving onto its next operation - the corners will be rounded to the same radius as the cutter. These tools can't make square corners, but there are wire burning tools and other options for doing so.

Core Design: This refers to the practice design engineers use to lighten metal. That is, a solid block of iron could be cored (lightened by removing some of the iron), so long as it doesn't compromise the iron's strength inside the die. The two benefits of designing a die with an intelligent core plan (many times to coring standards provided by the entity that requested the part) are iron cost efficiency and die weight sensibility.

Blank Drawing: This is the operation performed by draw dies. These dies are normally the first or second die in any die lineup. An unformed sheet metal blank is loaded into the die and formed to specifications provided in the part data file. Draw dies use pressure to form metal. A floating lower pad, powered by a pressure system below it, is an integral part of any draw die. This pad can be used to form the metal against the upper punch or it can be used as a 'ring' to grip the metal as the punch comes down and forms it.

Trim Die: This type of die is designed with a focus on trimming unwanted metal off a part. Trim dies can be implemented to trim out large holes, like window openings. Trimming to a finished trim line is sometimes accomplished with more than one trim die in the lineup. Designers will do their best to get all major trimming operations done in one die, but sometimes it just isn't possible.

There are three basic trim types:

Rough Trimming: Cutting away material to gain efficiency or access in the next operation, the final trim.

Final Trimming: This is the operation where the part is being trimmed to its final shape.

Interior Trimming: Normally more involved and requiring a trim steel layout plan, this is the act of trimming out openings that are located inside the final trim line.

Trim Steels: These manageable steel components have a mounting surface and a trim blade. The blades mounted on an upper die or cam act like the top of a pair of scissors. When they are brought down upon the metal, they meet a lower steel that act as the lower jaw of a pair of scissors. The steels are entered slightly into the metal, enough to bypass its metal thickness. The sheet metal that falls away from the trim line after trimming is called scrap.

Pierce Equipment: When smaller openings, like round or square holes, are required in a panel, a die punch is used (mounted in a die retainer, which is in turn mounted to a closing die surface). These hardened steel punches can be sharpened so that a single punch can survive the entire stamping procedure, sometimes tens of thousands of strokes. Pierce equipment normally refers to the male punch, the female die button, and the mounting retainers.

Die Cam: This is a mechanical device (see diagram below) that allows a die operation to be performed in a manner other than straight up and down. An angular surface can be machined onto a die's surface to accommodate a cam slide, the half of the cam that can actually move in a more horizontal manner. The cam driver's angular surface closes upon the cam slide's angular surface, causing the lower half to slide in a given direction. A punch, for example, mounted onto the face of cam slide can be pressed forward by the cam driver so that it punches a hole horizontally into sheet metal.

Obviously, as those that have interest in die design learn more advanced die processes, they will be exposed to more and more new terminology. Because part manufacturing requires so many people in different crafts to get involved, there's an opportunity for the more ambitious to learn not only the vocabulary in their own field, but in each of the complementary processes, too. A well-rounded manufacturing engineer will understand the journey a sheet metal blank takes to get to finished product. The machinery built to produce these parts goes through a process just as valuable to the engineer who wishes to converse about part manufacturing on all levels.

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Workhop Layout | Design


Once the workshop location is determined, it's time to begin planning how to lay it out. First, acknowledge the need to formulate a plan that's realistic in terms of the space allotted. The size of the structure or workspace will place some constraints on how much can be done. Taking into account size limitations, begin fashioning a plan that keeps efficiency in mind.

The layout of a workshop will be based, in part, on how it will be used — whether for carpentry, fine woodworking, metalwork or other activities. Regardless of category, however, it's important to keep in mind the principles of efficiency and organization. A layout that's clearly thought out in terms of functionality will make all the difference in creating a workspace that offers a pleasant surrounding as well as a space that's conducive to work.
 
Rather than purchasing equipment first and then trying to decide where to put it all, start with a diagram instead. For the workshop in our project, the diagram included major stationary tools and storage placed along the walls, and a sizeable workbench placed in the center of the room. 
 


 

The problems related to plant layout are generally observed because of the various developments that occur. These developments generally include adoption of the new standards of safety, changes in the design of the product, decision to set up a new plant, introducing a new product, withdrawing the various obsolete facilities etc.

Objectives of a good plant layout are –
1. Providing comfort to the workers and catering to worker’s taste and liking.
2. Giving good and improved working conditions.
3. Minimizing delays in production and making efficient use of the space that is available.
4. Having better control over the production cycle by having greater flexibility for changes in the design of the product.

Principles of a good plant layout are –
1. A good plant layout is the one which is able to integrate its workmen, materials, machines in the best possible way.
2. A good plant layout is the one which sees very little or minimum possible movement of the materials during the operations.
3. A good layout is the one that is able to make effective and proper use of the space that is available for use.
4. A good layout is the one which involves unidirectional flow of the materials during operations without involving any back tracking.
5. A good plant layout is the one which ensures proper security with maximum flexibility.
6. Maximum visibility, minimum handling and maximum accessibility, all form other important features of a good plant layout.

Types of layouts –
1. Process layout – These layouts are also called the functional layouts and are very suitable in the conditions, when the products being prepared are non – standard or involve wide variations in times of processing of the individual operations.
Such layouts are able to make better utilization of the equipment that is available, with greater flexibility in allocation of work to the equipment and also to the workers. Imbalance caused in one section is not allowed to affect the working of the other sections.
2. Product layout – These layouts are also known as the line layouts or the layout by sequence. In such layouts, the manufacturing cycle is small with minimum material handling. The space required is small and quality control is easy to exercise.
3. Project layout – Such layouts are also referred to as the fixed position layouts. In these layouts, the components, heavy materials, sub assemblies – all remain fixed at one place and the job is completed by movement of machines, men and tools to the location of the operations.

For most workshop applications, efficient workspace design follows a triangle, with the most important workstations at the three corners of the triangle.

A shop geared toward woodworking would have lumber storage located at one corner of the triangle. Storage space for wood — both long pieces and flat plywood pieces — should be adequate. Raised storage, such as racks or shelves mounted on the wall, must be sturdy. Wood storage should also be in close proximity to the stationary tools or machines (table saw, jointer, power planer, etc.) to avoid frequently carrying heavy wood across the span of the workspace. Wood storage should be handy and near the area where the heavy woodworking tasks will take place. Keep in mind that a considerable amount of space will be needed around stationary tools such as a table saws and jointers for manipulating large pieces of raw lumber.

The second corner of the triangle is in the center of the room and, in our case, is where the workbench is located. Following work progress in sequence, the workbench is typically the second workstation where medium-duty work is done after heavier preparatory or wood-milling steps are finished. The workbench is where work is typically done using hand tools or smaller power tools such as hand drills, routers and joinery tools.

The third corner of the triangle is the finishing station, where fine and detailed work takes place. At this station, tasks such as sanding, wood finishing and painting may take place. Since the detailed work is likely to be done here, it may be critical to keep this station more organized, clean and free of dust than the others.
Segregating the functional workstations in this way helps to keep the right tools and materials where they are needed for specific tasks. Meanwhile, keeping the three workstations in the close proximity of the triangle configuration makes it easy to proceed from one phase of a project to the next in a logical fashion.
Adequate storage for tools is essential, but easy access is also highly important for an efficiently designed workshop.

General tool storage can be in an area adjacent to the triangle so that individual tools are in easy reach for any project. Efficient design helps eliminate wasted time searching for necessary tools, and wasted steps carrying items back and forth — both of which can add up quickly.

Mamphake Mabule
Technical Writer | Dihlakanyane Books

c. 2016, Mabule Business Holdings

Monday, September 19, 2016

Power Plant | Engineering

When looking for opportunities to improve the performance metrics of a plant, pumps and fluid handling systems should be primary targets for evaluation, optimization and maintenance due to the sheer number and the influence on overall performance. Both centrifugal and positive displacement pumps are utilized in power generation applications. Of the two, engineers are generally more familiar with centrifugal pumps, which use an impeller to move fluid through the application process. The velocity of the rotating impeller imparts energy on the liquid and causes a rise in pressure (or head) that is proportional to the fluid's velocity. Positive displacement pumps – and, in particular, rotary variants – are less common, but can prove to be more cost effective and offer more efficient fluid handling in many applications. Instead of creating pressure, positive displacement pumps simply move liquid. Pressure is generated due to resistance to movement of the liquid downstream of the pump.



Things to Consider:
Whether you are an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) firm designing a new system, or a power plant operator looking to improve the performance and reliability of an existing system, here are 5.5 things to consider regarding pumps and pumping systems.

1. Liquid
The type and nature of the liquid being handled is a primary consideration when determining which pump technology to use. When handling viscous liquids such as heavy crude oil, bunker or residual fuel oils, low sulfur fuels and distillate fuels, multiple screw pumps – a variant of positive displacement pumps – provide remarkably good operating efficiencies as opposed to centrifugal pumps. The high efficiency performance of multiple screw pumps provides a clear advantage over centrifugal pumps where liquid viscosity exceeds 100 SSU (20 centistokes). Progressing cavity pumps are an excellent choice for wastewater and fuel sludge, as they can handle fluids that are contaminated or contain abrasive materials.

2. Supply
The specific hydraulic characteristics of positive displacement and centrifugal pumps lead to clear recommendations to keep total cost of ownership (TCO) as low as possible. When the system pressure is subject to change, a positive displacement pump is recommended, as it will remain efficient even when operating at varying pressures. While centrifugal pumps provide good efficiency within a relatively limited range of heads (pressures), this efficiency deteriorates rapidly if the head is too low. It suffers even more when the head exceeds the ideal range. Positive displacement pumps are the most economical choice when liquid viscosity changes, but flow volume remains constant. The efficiency of centrifugal pumps drops rapidly when viscosity is outside the optimal range (also known as the Best Efficiency Point, or BEP), whereas positive displacement pumps are less susceptible to these fluctuations.

3. Discharge
Whether pressure is constant or not is another key factor in the determination of which pump technology is better suited to the application. When the system has varying pressure requirements, centrifugal pumps will be forced to operate outside of their Best Efficiency Point, increasing the stress and wear on the pump. In these conditions, positive displacement pumps are the better choice to ensure high reliability. Today's high performance three screw pumps can operate with system pressures up to 4500 psi (310 bar) and flows to 3300 gpm (750 m3/h) with long term reliability and excellent efficiency. Power levels to 1,000 hp (745 kW) and higher are available.

4. Operations
When specifying pumps, consideration should be given to the mode of operation as well as to the operating conditions; will either change significantly? If flow volume remains constant, but pressure or delivery head varies, positive displacement pumps are the right choice due to their fixed displacement design. In contrast, centrifugal pumps are particularly efficient when operating on water-thin liquids at fixed operating conditions where it is possible to select the pump based on exact requirements. Centrifugal pumps will incur noticeably higher costs for spare parts, maintenance and downtime if viscosity and pressure are not constant. In either case, costs can be significantly reduced by operating a pump close to its most efficient range.

5. Sizing & Selection
Selecting the right type of pump – centrifugal or positive displacement – is important, but it is also critical to ensure that the pump and fluid handling system is properly sized. Figure 4 is a performance curve typical of multiple screw pumps. It shows excellent efficiency over a broad range of discharge pressures. When properly sized, multiple screw pumps also can handle various grades of liquid fuels, such as distillate or residual oil, using the same pumps and driver. This can provide a utility with some diversification of available oil supplies. For example, combustion gas turbines can be started and stopped using light distillate fuel while running on less costly (and higher heat value) heavy fuels.




If each piece of equipment is over-engineered, the power plant will have a system that is too large, performs at less than optimum efficiency, consumes excessive energy and adds higher maintenance and service costs. Conversely, a pump that is undersized may cost less at the outset, but the cost to rework or replace the system to meet performance expectations will outweigh the initial savings. The best rule of thumb is to size for worst-case flow and power requirements. In order to ensure the system is delivering adequate flow – especially in applications where fuel is being delivered to a turbine – size the pump for the highest temperature and lowest viscosity conditions. In contrast, during startup (cold) conditions, the fluid will have a higher viscosity, resulting in a higher power requirement. In this case, motor sizing is also important, making sure it can deliver the required power. Screw pumps offer excellent suction lift capability, which provides an operation margin for "upset" conditions, such as during startup when the liquid may be cold and more viscous or when there is an extended distance to the supply reservoir. This operation margin allows the use of smaller supply piping, reducing component costs and a simpler design. Centrifugal pumps offer good potential for optimization efforts simply because there are more of them. Centrifugal pumps should be selected for, and normally operated at, the manufacturer's design rated conditions of head and flow. This is usually at the best efficiency point, which is where pump impeller vane angles and the size and shape of the internal liquid flow passages provide the optimum combination of pressure and flow. As you move away from a centrifugal pump's BEP, the shaft will deflect and the pump will experience vibration. This causes reduced performance and accelerated wear.

Maintenance

Power plant operators tasked with improving efficiency and reliability should initiate a scheduled preventive maintenance program as part of the operational plan. Pumps used in auxiliary systems for lubrication will, by nature of their clean working conditions and application, require less preventive maintenance than pumps used for primary applications such as fuel injection and fuel forwarding. In both positive displacement and centrifugal pumps, the following components should be inspected, serviced and replaced when necessary to ensure optimum efficiency and reliability:
• Radial Bearings: if not sealed, these will need periodic lubrication and may need to be replaced if vibration or excessive heat is being generated
• Mechanical Seals: check for leakage and replace if necessary; it should be noted that a mechanical shaft seal is not a zero leak device
• O-rings and Gaskets: check for deterioration and replace if necessary

As a service to their end users, many pump manufacturers provide these parts in what is sometimes called a "minor kit," allowing the customer to easily identify and order the parts they need for a scheduled maintenance program on the pump. In addition to the items mentioned above, centrifugal pumps also require inspection of the impeller, which can be replaced if worn or damaged. For positive displacement pumps, virtually every wearing part of the pump – screws, gears (in the case of two-screw pumps), and housing – can often be replaced in the form of what some manufacturers refer to as a "major kit." When repairing a pump with a major kit, the user essentially has a new pump, at a cost that is somewhat lower than replacing the entire pump. When servicing pumps and fluid handling systems, it is recommended to only use replacement parts manufactured or certified by the pump manufacturer. Knock-offs, or "pirated parts," may work initially, but are typically not manufactured to the same standards as OEM parts and could result in early failure, leading to system downtime, damage to other components or even injury. In most cases, use of non-OEM parts will void any original equipment warranties. Using parts approved by the manufacturer will result in a longer service life, extended intervals between maintenance, a more predictable process and an increased system efficiency – not to mention peace of mind.

Pumps and fluid handling systems should be primary targets for evaluation, optimization and maintenance.
Centrifugal pumps offer good potential for optimization efforts, simply because there are more of them. Pumps used in auxiliary systems for lubrication will require less preventive maintenance.

Monday, September 12, 2016

Electromechanical Modeling | Engineering

The purpose of Electro-Mechanical Modeling is to model and simulate an electro-mechanical system, such that it's physical parameters can be examined before the actual system is built. Parameter estimation and physical realization of the overall system is the major design objective of Electro-Mechanical modeling. Theory driven mathematical model can be used or applied to other system to judge the performance of the joint system as a whole.

In engineering, electromechanics combines electrical and mechanical processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Electrical engineering in this context also encompasses electronics engineering. Devices which carry out electrical operations by using moving parts are known as electromechanical. Strictly speaking, a manually operated switch is an electromechanical component, but the term is usually understood to refer to devices which involve an electrical signal to create mechanical movement, or mechanical movement to create an electric signal. Often involving electromagnetic principles such as in relays, which allow a voltage or current to control other, usually isolated circuit voltage or current by mechanically switching sets of contacts, and solenoids, by which a voltage can actuate a moving linkage as in solenoid valves. Piezoelectric devices are electromechanical, but do not use electromagnetic principles. Piezoelectric devices can create sound or vibration from an electrical signal or create an electrical signal from sound or mechanical vibration. Before the development of modern electronics, electromechanical devices were widely used in complicated systems subsystems, including electric typewriters, teleprinters, very early television systems, and the very early electromechanical digital computers.


Beginning in the last third of the century, much equipment which for most of the 20th century would have used electromechanical devices for control, has come to use less expensive and more reliable integrated microcontroller circuits containing ultimately a few million transistors, and a program to carry out the same task through logic, with electromechanical components only where moving parts, such as mechanical electric actuators, are a requirement. Such chips have replaced most electromechanical devices, because any point in a system which must rely on mechanical movement for proper operation will have mechanical wear and eventually fail. Properly designed electronic circuits without moving parts will continue to operate properly almost indefinitely and are used in most simple feedback control systems, and appear in huge numbers in everything from traffic lights to washing machines.

The modeling of purely mechanical systems is mainly based on the Lagrangian - a mathematical function called the Lagrangian is a function of the generalized coordinates, their time derivatives, and time, and contains the information about the dynamics of the system. No new physics is introduced in Lagrangian mechanics compared to Newtonian mechanics which is a function of the generalized coordinates and the associated velocities. If all forces are derivable from a potential, then the time behavior of the dynamical systems is completely determined. For simple mechanical systems, the Lagrangian is defined as the difference of the kinetic energy and the potential energy. There exists a similar approach for electrical system. By means of the electrical co-energy and well defined power quantities, the equations of motions are uniquely defined. The currents of the inductors and the voltage drops across the capacitors play the role of the generalized coordinates. All constraints, for instance caused by the Kirchhoff laws, are eliminated from the considerations. After that, a suitable transfer function is to be derived from the system parameters which eventually governs the behavior of the system. In consequence, we have quantities (kinetic and potential energy, generalized forces) which determine the mechanical part and quantities (co-energy, powers) for the description of the electrical part. This offers a combination of the mechanical and electrical parts by means of an energy approach. As a result, an extended Lagrangian format is produced.

Mamphake Mabule
Draughtsman | Mamphake Designs

Monday, September 5, 2016

Product Development | Engineering

similar to the one listed below. This is a general outline of getting a product idea from concept to market. It is a time tested formula and used in many companies across many industries. There are several variants of this formula, all of them are good as they fit different situations and types of product development. The most critical time in designing a mechanical system for cost saving and improving product performance comes at the very beginning of the design process. Without a good, well thought through base design, the rest of project quickly becomes costly and can result in huge issues that result in poor product performance. Mechanical engineers that can catch problems in the early design, or have the experience to never create the problems in the first place, save many of the headaches and cost overruns that happen later in production. Below is the process broken into the phases I normally use.

Concept Phase
This is the initial phase where the idea for the new product is generated and documented. The idea here is to flush out the idea as much as possible and assess if it is worth pursuing. To some degree, this is always done by an inventor or entrepreneur before coming to me, for why else would someone hire a product design and development professional unless they already have an idea they want to pursue.

Discovery Phase
This is an added phase in my process where a customer shares their idea with me so I can bid on it. It's common practice to sign a non-disclosure agreement up front with the customer to keep what is discussed confidential (keeping a customer's information confidential is something I do even without the agreement in place, unless agreed to by the customer). I also work with the customer to flush out the idea, this usually stems naturally from my need to have a good specification to create a quote and this process can range from a short phone call for a simple design to a couple of weeks of talks if the design is complicated or requires a lot of detail. I do not charge for this service thou..... At the end of this phase I usually deliver a proposal to the customer with a firm quote for the preliminary phase and estimates for the other phases beyond that.

Preliminary Design Phase
In this phase, I create a preliminary design based on the specifications agreed upon in the discovery phase. I also create an engineering model and do any other engineering and design that is necessary to flush out the product so that there is a high level of confidence that the design will work before proceeding to detailing the parts and creating engineering drawings and documents.

This phase is really where the bulk of the product design & development is done. At the end of this phase the work is summarized and delivered to the customer at a Preliminary Design Review (PDR). A written technical report is also delivered detailing the work done in this phase. After this phase, it should be very clear to all parties what the final product will look like and what its features will be. If, after the review, the customer believes parts of the design need to be tweaked or they decide they want modification or new features added this will be incorporated into the next phase. Mechanical Engineering Professionals, will then update the original proposal and give a firm quote to our customers for the next phase before proceeding.

Critical Design Phase
Most of this phase is for detailing the design and creating engineering drawings and documents of the design presented at the Preliminary Design Review. Any changes or modifications to the design requested by the customer at the Preliminary Design Review are also incorporated before drawings are made. Once drawings and necessary documents are completed, these are sent out to manufacting houses for quote so that the customer will have a detailed price for the building of the product. I also work with manufacturers specified by the customer if they have a particular vendor that they prefer. At the end of this phase the work is summarized and delivered to the customer at a Critical Design Review (CDR). A written report is also delivered detailing everything done in this phase. Again, at the end of this phase I normally update the proposal and give firm costs for the next phase before proceeding.


Build Phase
In this phase, all the parts for the assembly are ordered, received and the product is assembled. Any kinks in the assembly process are ironed out and debugged. Bugs are sometimes surprising to many people who are new to product development because most people hear about software bugs but rarely do people hear about it being associated with mechanical or other types of projects. Most often, these are trivial and come from all sorts of areas such as a part just not being made correctly or a press fit being too tight etc. 

Overcoming bugs is large part of development and the reason why most major companies will do several revisions of a design before releasing a product to the public (alpha, beta, and release designs); especially those companies wishing to release high quality products. There should always be a buffer in an initial build of a product to allow for debugging during the build. Also in this phase, the initial manufacturing procedures are worked out and any necessary manufacturing documentation is created. Higher end or higher volume assemblies may also require specialty tools to do such things as fine alignments or to just speed up the assembly process. This would also be addressed here. At the end of this phase, fully built prototypes would be delivered to the customer.


Testing Phase
On simple projects this phase is often wrapped in with the build phase and I always do some testing of a product in the build phase before shipping a prototype to a customer. The testing can be as simple as "does it work or not?" but with more intricate assemblies this can become much more complicated as one is not just testing if it works but how well or how long it works. Tests vary tremendously on the type of product and level of quality the customer wants to achieve. These can also involve market research testing to see how well the product would be received. I work hand in hand with many customers on this phase as they usually want to be intimately involved in the testing to see for themselves how well the product works. Many times the customer takes over this phase completely. The amount of testing is most often limited by time and budget constraints.

Beta Build Phase / Release Build Phase
In the final phase a documentation package is delivery which includes detail drawing of custom components and assembly drawings with bill of matetials. For tooled parts, CAD data can be exported in a variety of formats to enable tooling directly from the CAD database to ensure accuracy and expedite the tooling process.

Often the product development cycle listed above is repeated several times mainly to iron out bugs or fix problems that were discovered in testing. The beta and release phases aren't really phases so much as a shortened iteration of the entire product development cycle. Of course, in the beta and release, the design and build phases are much cheaper and quicker to complete since one is building on a design already created instead of starting from scratch. The goal of the beta phase is usually to create a short run of prototypes that are as close to release as possible and get them into the hands of key testers, select customers or others to do some final testing before a full product launch. The release build phase is usually just to get the final bugs out of the design as production is ramped up for the initial product launch.

Mamphake Mabule
c. 2016, Mabule Business Holdings

Sunday, September 4, 2016

Small Miners | Entrepreneur

I set my sights on researching small mining operated by local small miners. I first asked the question: What is a paying quantity of mined gems? Well, when coming to gold, most small miners were satisfied with a 0.25 gram of gold per 0.914 meter, others a full gram per meter. These operations can run 1.829 - 2.743 gross meters of material an hour. Another question was: What will it take to cover the cost of equipment, the time, maintenance, and bond? The operations normally cost about R144,789.00 on average to get going, including the backhoe, vibratory screener, highbanker, long tom, water tub, water tanks, reclamation bond, and other support items. 

In some operations the equipent is accumulated over time, some were home built and designed, other equipment were purchased just for the operation. To get started, I was advised to buy second hand equipment. To go with a new backhoe and screener would proberly cost R144,789.00. Get some gold first! Whether new or used equipment, someone has got to be the mechanic. I'm always reminded that the operation involve digging the hardest packed, heaviest material all the way down to bedrock. It takes a toll on the equipment. Welding, and a mechanical background are very helpful. Daily maintenance is a must! As a draughtsman with hands on experience as a mechanic, I too had to look at the equiment maintenance reports over to be sure something simple doesn't shut down the operation early. Time for Review.....The miners sample their claims, find out what the department of minerals and energy requires for small prospecting mining claim (Notices or Plan of Operation, etc.), checked out the assest register containing all equipment, and reclamation bond. For most small miners, it took several years to fine tune their equipment and modify them to work best in the material they were processing.

I noticed tha material management was the key, whether small miners were running a small operation, or moving hundreds of meters a day. I would recommend automating as much of the material handling process as possible, Plan equipment and material handling routes. Those working creek bed, tell me that the operation quickly reclaim themselves with a good rain. The material processes from the creek generally goes toward road improvement or other necessary uses because once it is put back in the creek it becomes "dredge/fill" material that is regulated. In upland washes and benches, some would mix the size of material when refill. When leaving the fine gravels for last, it will be the first to wash off when the water is raging down the hill, and most environmental issues involve the clarity of the water. When prospecting mainly dry creek beds. Things like clay and vegetation will be a determining factor on how much area the mining operation can run per hour without refreshing the water. Water wells or boreholes are another great commodity to have close by. First, make sure the gold is in the ground, then common sense and attention to detail will go a long way toward having a successful operation.....

Mamphake Mabule
c. 2016, Mabule Business Holdings

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Types of Draughting Services

Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in industry and engineering. It also is a legal document (that is, a legal instrument), because it communicates all the needed information about "what is wanted" to the people who will expend resources turning the idea into a reality. It is thus a part of a contract; the purchase order and the drawing together, as well as any ancillary documents (engineering change orders [ECOs], called-out specs), constitute the contract. Thus, if the resulting product is wrong, the worker or manufacturer are protected from liability as long as they have faithfully executed the instructions conveyed by the drawing. If those instructions were wrong, it is the fault of the engineer. Because manufacturing and construction are typically very expensive processes (involving large amounts of capital and payroll), the question of liability for errors has great legal implications as each party tries to blame the other and assign the wasted cost to the other's responsibility. This is the biggest reason why the conventions of engineering drawing have evolved over the decades toward a very precise, unambiguous state. For centuries, until the post-World War II era, all engineering drawing was done manually by using pencil and pen on paper or other substrate (e.g., vellum, mylar). Since the advent of computer-aided design (CAD), engineering drawing has been done more and more in the electronic medium with each passing decade. Today most engineering drawing is done with CAD, but pencil and paper have not disappeared. Some of the tools of manual drafting include pencils, pens and their ink, straightedges, T-squares, French curves, triangles, rulers, protractors, dividers, compasses, scales, erasers, and tacks or push pins. (Slide rules used to number among the supplies, too, but nowadays even manual drafting, when it occurs, benefits from a pocket calculator or its onscreen equivalent.) And of course the tools also include drawing boards (drafting boards) or tables.



A structural drawing, a type of Engineering drawing, is a plan or set of plans for how a building or other structure will be built. Structural drawings are generally prepared by registered professional structural engineers, and informed by architectural drawings. They are primarily concerned with the load-carrying members of a structure. They outline the size and types of materials to be used, as well as the general demands for connections. They do not address architectural details like surface finishes, partition walls, or mechanical systems. The structural drawings communicate the design of the building's structure to the building authority to review. They are also become part of the contract documents which guide contractors in detailing, fabricating, and installing parts of the structure.

An architectural drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architects and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that already exists. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views (floor plan, section etc.), sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales, annotation and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, and any copies required had to be laboriously made by hand. The twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. The development of the computer had a major impact on the methods used to design and create technical drawings, making manual drawing almost obsolete, and opening up new possibilities of form using organic shapes and complex geometry. Today we create a vast majority of drawings using CAD software.

An electrical drawing, is a type of technical drawing that shows information about power, lighting, and communication for an engineering or architectural project. Any electrical working drawing consists of "lines, symbols, dimensions, and notations to accurately convey an engineering's design to the workers, who install the electrical system on the job". A complete set of working drawings for the average electrical system in large projects usually consists of: A plot plan showing the building's location and outside electrical wiring; Floor plans showing the location of electrical systems on every floor; Power-riser diagrams showing panel boards; Control wiring diagrams; Schedules and other information in combination with construction drawings.

A plumbing drawing, a type of technical drawing, shows the system of piping for fresh water going into the building and waste going out, both solid and liquid. Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Plumbing is a piping system with which most people are familiar, as it constitutes the form of fluid transportation that is used to provide potable water and fuels to their homes and businesses. Plumbing pipes also remove waste in the form of sewage, and allow venting of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems also use piping, and may transport nonpotable or potable water, or other fire-suppression fluids.

A Mechanical systems drawing is a type of technical drawing that shows information about heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. It is a powerful tool that helps analyze complex systems. These drawings are often a set of detailed drawings used for construction projects; it is a requirement for all HVAC work. They are based on the floor and reflected ceiling plans of the architect. After the mechanical drawings are complete, they become part of the construction drawings, which is then used to apply for a building permit. They are also used to determine the price of the project. Arrangement drawings include information about the self-contained units that make up the system: table of parts, fabrication and detail drawing, overall dimension, weight/mass, lifting points, and information needed to construct, test, lift, transport, and install the equipment. These drawings should show at least three different orthographic views and clear details of all the components and how they are assembled. The assembly drawing typically includes three orthographic views of the system: overall dimensions, weight and mass, identification of all the components, quantities of material, supply details, list of reference drawings, and notes. Assembly drawings detail how certain component parts are assembled. An assembly drawing shows which order the product is put together, showing all the parts as if they were stretched out. This will help a welder to understand how the product will go together so he get an idea of where the weld is needed. The assembly drawing will contain the following; information overall dimensions, weight and mass, identification of all the components, quantities of material, supply details, list of reference drawings, and notes. In detail drawings, components used to build the mechanical system are described in some detail to show that the designer's specifications are met: relevant codes, standards, geometry, weight, mass, material, heat treatment requirements, surface texture, size tolerances, and geometric tolerances. A fabricationdrawing is made up of many different parts and has a list of parts that make up the fabrication. In the list, parts are identified (balloons and leader lines) and complex details are included: welding details, material standards, codes, and tolerances, and details about heat/stress treatments.

Friday, August 26, 2016

Power Plant | Engineering

Some dc motors can be used as generators as well by applying mechanical torque to the output shaft to induce a current. However, even if a dc motor can do this, I imagine they were not designed for this purpose and thus perform less efficiently when used as a generator rather than as a motor. In my admittedly naive understanding, dc generators and dc motors are essentially the same machinery, but with inputs and outputs reversed. This leads me to believe that some other design considerations are used to make one direction more efficient than the other. How differently are DC generators and DC motors designed to make one direction of input/output more efficient than the other? What can I do electrically or mechanically to improve the efficiency in either direction? In particular, I'm interested in converting a DC motor into a generator and want to know how I can improve its efficiency in converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.




DC generators began as brushed commutated devices. They had a one or more stator windings and an armature winding. Field wound DC generators as well as motors were commonly connected in one of three methods: Series, Shunt and Compound. Without getting into details, each had its own set of strengths and weaknesses. But you only have to remember these two things: the voltage of a DC motor is dependent on its input shaft speed. Current is a function of torque. More voltage means more RPM's and more amps means more newton-meters....

So with all that, I need a constant speed source to get a constant voltage. And I need to ensure I have enough torque to satisfy the current demand of the load otherwise voltage drops off. Old vehicle had commutated generators. They couldn't regulate the voltage so they used a range of around 10-14 volts and used a relay that simply closed when the engines speed was within the voltage range. If the voltage went too low or too high, the relay opened. Primitive by today's standards. The Alternator in today's vehicles uses a voltage regulation circuit that varies the armature current which changes the field strength based on the stators output voltage. Lower speed means more current to the armature and less current at higher speeds.

 
So how different were DC generators from motors? Not very different at all. If anything they mostly differed in mechanical design as they were to be coupled to a prime mover (steam, ICE, electric etc.). Well, firstly the dynamos do need either some kick-start power or permanent magnets, as they can't depend on electromagnets in the stator only; I know that I won't generate any electricity by moving a wire without any current next to another wire without any current. A permanent magnet DC motor will act as a dynamo if I provide rotation power to its axis, so there's not much difference here. The commutator may be aligned a little bit differently, ignoring the need to cut off early, when the magnetic field would brake the motor; there would be no concern about not creating a 'dead zone' where the motor wouldn't start, not pulled by a neighbour magnet. If anything, the device would be considerably simpler. Now if I want to engage electromagnets for the stator, there will be some differences... usually they would be powered from an external source, which could be then charged from the dynamo.

 

Though, in much larger dynamos they had adjustable commutator brushes to compensate for the shift in the commutation plane as a result of heavy load characteristics. A hand wheel would turn a worm gear which would advance or retard the commutation plane to bring the generator back into its normal operating parameters. I'm guessing that it's the nameplate RPM which I need to spin the motor at to get the nameplate voltage. This means if I have a 12V motor that spins at 6000 RPM, I'll need 6000 RPM to get 12V. If I don't have a constant speed source then I have no way to regulate the voltage. I would then need a buck-boost switching regulator to get a constant voltage from the motor.

DC generators, or dynamos of any significant size are rather rare these days. It's much more common to use an AC generator (alternator) with an external rectifier. And just for reference, an AC motor can also generate power if you spin it faster than its nameplate RPM, usually at synchronous speed. But again, no voltage regulation and a constant speed is needed. More trouble than its worth. Also of note: jet planes use a very elaborate mechanical speed regulator to produce constant shaft speeds which ensures a constant 60 or 400Hz AC frequency as the throttle is varied.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Technical Illustration | Design

Technical illustration is a broad field of study. It covers any illustration assignment that needs to show the viewer how something functions or how parts are interrelated. At its heart is clarity and precision, and consequently it requires more discipline and knowledge. I believe illustrators need to work longer and harder to gain the skills needed. New illustrators and students need to know it’s going to take passion and dedication to be successful in this field. Technical illustrators need to be able to draw well. This means being able to accurately depict the world around us with line, tone and color. Don’t expect to gain this by attending a few classes in school, it will take a lifetime of learning, and continued practice to maintain. Students need to study perspective, how to render light and shade as well as color theory. Don’t expect computer programs to do this for you. If you wish to include the figure in your work you will need to study artistic anatomy as well.


I love illustration as much or if not more than editorial design. I also use my engineering draughting background which is still part of what I do. When I began exploring technical illustration, the tools of he trade were roting pens, drawing boards, etc but I caught the wave of desktop publishing just at the right time. Photography can be expensive with illustration you can build a world that is immersive at a fraction of the cost. Working as a technical illustrator is not a passive act, you are expected to research and understand the topics you are given. In addition you will need to solve the many technical and design issues that arise with each assignment. The artistic quality of your work is up to you. Hopefully you have a passion for fine art and can bring flair to your work that is attractive. I believe that technical illustration should be beautiful as well as useful because the future of publishing is digital.....

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Vehicle Manufacturing | Entrepreneur

 The Automotive Manufacturing Industry Certificate (AMIC) has been the benchmark for vehicle manufacturers in South Africa for many years, but this certificate has not been aligned to unit standards. This has meant that learners who have gone through the learning process have achieved valuable skills, but have not received any form of recognition for these skills. Various interventions have been entered into over the years to try and align the AMIC programme with SAQA unit standards and qualifications, but it was found that the AMIC programme was more complex than a SAQA qualification and covered various unrelated areas. This difficulty has been addressed by focusing achievement of this qualification on the essential elements of vehicle manufacturing and allowing manufacturers to choose additional existing courses for their learners in more generic areas such as logistics, administration, quality assurance and technical non-production. This means that a qualification can now be developed to give recognition for all people who work in a vehicle manufacturing plant in any of the areas identified as a specialisation for this qualification.
This qualification has been designed to specifically cater for the unique needs of the South African vehicle manufacturers and is at a level below that which most other countries provide training at. The countries looked at for international comparability include Japan, Germany, Thailand, England, Spain, Mexico, Turkey, United States of America and Brazil.

South Africa has adopted a much more labour intensive approach to manufacturing vehicles in order to provide jobs and meet economic requirements. Each of the above countries use skilled artisans to manufacture vehicles, and focus on advanced technology and robotics more than the South African manufacturers. These countries also only employ qualified people in the manufacturing plant, whereas South Africa employs unskilled labour that can be trained to this qualification in a manner that integrates learning and work. Where additional training is required in the other countries, training is conducted off the production line, whereas the training in South Africa is conducted in the plant.

Elements of the Institute of Motor Industry (IMI) in the UK have been used in benchmarking best practice procedures in some of the unit standards used in this qualification. The NVQ qualifications offered in the UK cover all the same objectives of this qualification but at a higher level of complexity. The qualifications are offered as an internship wherein the learner enrols with a college or training centre for the theoretical component, and achieves the practical component in-house. The qualifications are all based on specific levels of performance, and lead to progressive levels of complexity, but are identified as separate qualifications.The qualifications offered in Germany are also vocational qualifications with theoretical components being achieved through a specified period at a training centre. The qualifications are aimed at achieving complete competence in all aspects of vehicle manufacturing through a progressive series of qualifications and includes mechanical, electrical and coach works. The training programmes are progressive qualifications of one-year duration each and include ongoing training through workbooks in which the trainee is required to complete evidence of understanding for each month of the registered year of learning. Germany has a requirement that competent people be licensed to operate under the meister (master craftsman) programme, and this licence is valid for a period of two years.




 America uses a system of specialisation areas, with a master technician being identified as a person who is competent in all areas and will be able to assemble any part of a vehicle. The learning is conducted through apprenticeships and has specialisation areas for engine technicians, transmission technicians, steering and suspension technicians, brake technicians, electrical system technicians, heating and air-conditioning technicians, driveability and performance technicians and lubrication technicians.

Other African countries do not have full manufacturing plants, but import semi knocked down units that are then assembled by trained operators without a formal qualification. It is anticipated that this qualification will have a strong appeal within the African market and will provide qualifications for people that would otherwise be unrecognised for their skills and knowledge.

Registration as vehicle manufacturer or importer
Should you want to manufacture, import or build motor vehicles in South Africa for profit, you must first register with the provincial department of transport. Once the department receives your application, it will send an inspector to determine if you comply with the relevant regulations. Your business will also be subjected to South African Police Service (SAPS) clearance.
What you should do
  1. Go to the provincial department of transport and submit the following:
    • a completed application and notice in respect of manufacturer/importer/ builder of vehicles (MIB) form
    • certified copy of the applicant’s identity document (ID)
    • certified copy of the proxy’s ID (if the applicant is a body of persons)
    • certified copy of the business certificate (if the applicant is a body of persons)
    • letter of proxy if you represent a company 
    • custom code number from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) (if you are an importer)
    • proof of VAT registration from SARS
How long does it take
Registration is subject to the relevant MEC’s approval and the registration certificate is issued on such approval.
How much does it cost
Contact your local department of transport for the cost.
Forms to complete
Application and notice in respect of manufacturer/importer/builder of vehicles (MIB) form. Forms are obtainable at the registering authority or you can download them from the eNaTIS website.

NAAMSA - The National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa - is an  important source of information about the motor industry in sub-Saharan Africa. After 50 years of being the official body representing new vehicle manufacturers, it is now going through major changes in line with the transformation of the industry. The NAAMSA membership base now includes major importers and distributors of new vehicles as well as local manufacturers and assemblers, making it the pre-eminent organisation for all franchise holders marketing vehicles in South Africa.

Every month, NAAMSA makes the headlines with its release of the latest new vehicle sales figures, which have become recognised as significant barometers of the country's economic activity, consumer trends and general fiscal health. The compilation of these sales statistics is a sophisticated operation on a par with similar motor industry marketing information gathering in the industrialised nations of Europe and North America. The figures are far more detailed than the summaries carried in the general media suggest and you can find an in-depth analysis and graphs in our web pages or contact NAAMSA directly at the address below - which should, in any case, be your first call if you are new to the South African market and serious about doing business in the motor industry here.

There is a NAAMSA working group or specialist committee tackling each of the major issues facing the industry - ranging from local content to vehicle crime and safety legislation. A sign of the times is the new NAAMSA Export Division as the industry reaches for overseas markets, and a whole range of activities linked to the Motor Industry Development Programmes.

Aviation Legalities | Transportation

South African air law revolves around the expressions "authority to fly " or " permission to fly".
The Air Navigation Regulations from 1976 state in 1.10 (1) No aircraft shall be flown in the Republic unless - ... Means , by default flying is verboten. No person and no man made object is allowed to fly in South Africa. Unless you get permission to fly from the government. The South African government is the landowner of the air around us. Besides getting permission from the landowner for a flying site to use a takeoff and landing area, we also need permission from the government , if we want to fly.  For the South African government the  Department of Transport is in charge of the airspace in South Africa. Who delegated  the management of the sky in South Africa to the CAA, the Civil Aviation Authority. And along with that delegation a new buzz word got created , the "user pay basis", which got introduced in the 1990's..




Out went the  idea of "free flying", but we still got the "free dying", as far as I know. Have not met anyone who came back from the pearly gates complaining that they charge an entrance fee. The CAA delegated the administration for Hang Gliders and Paragliders in 1991 to AeCSA, the Aero Club of South Africa, a Section 21 company. This delegation is at the moment based on a Memorandum of Understanding  which gets renewed now and then. Or not. CAA can take it back whenever they feel like it.

CAA has produced , and carry on producing,  piles of paper with rules and regulations called Civil Aviation Rules  (CARS). They are on the web at www.caa.co.za  follow the CARS  or the  CATS   and the Non Type Certified Aircraft  link. Some of them have been  gazetted, some will be gazetted, and some have been put on ice. And some wait for translation into the 2nd official language, what is Zulu.  See AIC 18·23 . Those which have been gazetted can be considered as a law. And if you do not adhere to a law then you can end up with a criminal court case. For me it is not quite clear what got gazetted and what not. Some of those CARS off the CAA website say "Effective from whatever date"  and then I get told that they are not! And some of what got gazetted is not realistic when it comes to our type of flying.

The CARS that are relevant for Hang Gliding and Paragliding are:
  • Part 1 has definitions like what is considered an Accident, Incident, Hazard, or what is Daylight, ... and what the abbreviations like VFR or MSL mean
  • Part 12 defines what has to be reported and by whom, and to where. Like when we got a dead body,  notify the police. And it says there that accidents, incidents and hazards have to be reported.
    • For example 12.02.5 Notification of hazards
(1) Any person involved in an accident or incident, or observing any accident, incident, hazard or discrepancy that may affect aviation safety, may notify the designated body or institution referred in regulation 12.01.2, of such accident, incident, hazard or discrepancy. (
2) Any person who notifies the designated body or institution referred to in regulation 12.01.2 of an accident or incident, shall not be absolved from the duty to notify the Commissioner of such accident or incident in terms of regulation 12.02.1, 12.02.2 or 12.02.3, as the case may be.
  • Part 24  defines our flying machines as non type certified aircraft and that it has to be airworthy to fly.
    •  The airworthiness of the aircraft, classified in sub-groups (h) to (l) in sub-regulation 24.01.1(2), shall be the sole responsibility of the owner or operator in accordance with generally accepted practices for such aircraft or as laid down by the organisation, approved for the purpose in terms of Part 49.
    • Part 24.04.3   defines who can test ...  APPROVED ORGANISATIONS

      1.             Test authorities approved for the certification of hang-gliders, paragliders and parachutes
                     The following test authorities have been approved by the Commissioner or the organisation designated for the purpose in terms of Part 149, as the case may be, for the certification of hang-gliders, paragliders and parachutes:
      *               AFNOR (The French ACPULS certification)
      *               AHGF (The Australian Hang Gliding Federation)
      *               BCAR (British Civil Aviation Regulations)
      *               DHV (The German GUTE SIEGEL certification)
      *               DULV (Deutsche Ultraliecht Verein)
      *               HMA (US Hang-gliding Manufacturers Association)
      *               SAPA (The South African Parachute Association reserve parachute testing procedure
      *               SHV (The Swiss Hang Verein certification
      *               USHGA (The United States Hang Gliding Association
      At the moment it is not clear to me if SAHPA or Aero Club is approved as an organization in terms of Part 149.
       
      • The SAHPA Operations and Procedure Manual states that all new hang gliders and paragliders sold in South Africa shall have been certified by an approved test Authority and carry a label with the

      manufacturers name, a serial number, date of manufacture, quality
      controller's signature, pilot mass range and the class rating, and shall be
      classified in the Glider Classification Schedule.
      This regulation does not ask for DHV or Afnor stickers as such, but that the
      glider must have been certified and that all the information of the glider
      must be available on the glider. The information must include the DHV or
      Afnor rating, or any other test rating that SAHPA has deemed acceptable.
      • It also requires that all gliders that arrives in the country must be

      submitted for classification on the Glider Classification Schedule.
      • 24.1.6.1 states that students have to be on a communication system when trained, in our case radios
    •  Part 61 and 62 covers licenses
Part 61 for example states.... Privileges of a paraglider pilot licence
61.18.9
(1) The holder of a paraglider pilot licence shall be entitled to act, but not for remuneration, as pilot-in-command of any paraglider engaged in a nonrevenue flight, for which the holder is type rated, in VMC by day.... But according to AeCSA in 2004 Part 61 is not  applicable for us. Confusing?
Part 62 handles licence requirements. Zipped files  or  MS Word Draft originals for Part 62 and Technical Specs.
What you have to do to be allowed to fly.... see also Proposed National Pilot's License - Part 62 (May 04) In August 2006 Part 62 got "finalized" See PART 62 August 2006  for details.
  •  Defines things like the amount of flights for a new  license and renewals
  • This will replace some of the Section 3 and 4 of the SAHPA Operations and Procedure Manual. The SAHPA committee will not any longer change license requirements on an ad hoc basis. If SAHPA decides to change, one will have to motivate it and get it approved by a CARCOM meeting by CAA. And then it has to get into the law making cycle and get gazetted. Means, whatever will be in this Part 62 we will have to live with for quite a while.
  •  Part 62 and Part 24 allow the ARO  (SAHPA) to define some more requirements for pilots and flying equipment. Like that one can only fly a certain glider with a certain experience level is defined in the Glider Classification schedule.
  •  Part 91 are the flight rules of the air for everybody , like
    • right is right
    • landing aircraft got right of way
  •  Part 94 states for example that we
    • have to fly in VFR conditions, not at night , not go into cloud,  and only fly in uncontrolled airspace
    • are allowed  to ridge soar
    • have to wear a helmet
    • have to get landowner permission to fly from a site
    • use for tandem and training only  approved sites which are on the SAHPA site register
    • operate a winch only with a guillotine or hook knife
    • need a  tandem rating to fly a passenger, maximum 2 people on a tandem, and a tandem needs a reserve
  • Part 96 mentions Tandem for reward
    •  For the purpose of sub-regulation (2), tandem operations with hang-gliders, paragliders or parachutes, even if carried out for remuneration or reward, shall not considered to be the providing of an air service as defined in the Air Services Licensing Act of 1990 (Act 115/1990) or International Air Services Act of 1993 (Act 60/1993) nor to be a commercial air transport operation, as defined in Part 1 of these Regulations.
  • Part 106 Operation of Hang Gliders and Paragliders. Repeats what is in the other Parts, like ...
    • you need a license , have to be a member of AeCSA and SAHPA
    • comply with the SAHPA Operations and Procedure Manual
    • have to wear a helmet and fly with a harness.
    • and stay out of clouds and not fly at night
    • fly Tandem and Instruct only from registered sites
But 106 is not active, see AIC18-4 which states  implementation of Parts 61, 66.09.1, 98, 100 through 106, 127, 133, 149 have been postponed in until further notice
 
 
  •   Part 185 says that you can get fined and get a prison sentence of up to 10 years for not adhering to any of the CAA regulations  by doing things like ....
    • falsifying your logbook,
    • cheating on your application forms,
    • or flying without a license,
    • or giving your glider to your buddy who is not licensed or has not got the correct rating ( 185.00.1.h .... permits a licence, rating, certificate, permit, approval, authorisation, exemption or other document issued under the Regulations, of which he, she or it is the holder, to be used, or a privilege granted thereby, to be exercised, by any other person;)


There is a draft on the CAA website to introduce in 2003 spot fines ranging from R1000 to  R75.000 for not adhering to any of the CAA regulations. Those spot fines can be imposed by CAA inspectors.  See also AIC 22.3

So, SA law says, if you want to take off into the air with a Hang Glider or Paraglider,  you need an Aero Club/SAHPA license. Also as a visitor, with a foreign license.  A foreign license does not entitle you to fly in South Africa. You first have to get a temporary SAHPA membership to fly legal in sunny South Africa. Not adhering to some gazetted law can give you a criminal court case. If it is a 100 percent clear cut case. And if things go wrong you can also get yourself into a civil court case, for not adhering to some CAA , SAHPA or local Club rule in some cases were someone is injured or some property is damaged. Where a judge can reckon that you are liable for a certain  percentage to whatever damage to the other party.